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APUSH Review Sheet and AP US History Notes

A no-nonsense online review packet and study guide for AP ® United States History, and the SAT Subject Test .

 

FORMAT OF NEW APUSH TEST

Key Terms To Know  

(SCROLL TO BOTTOM FOR REVIEW SONGS / VIDEOS)

Period 1, 1491-1607 (5% of Exam) and Period 2, 1607-1754

Native America before Conquest, Early Spanish Settlements,,, Indentured Servitude, Chesakpeake Bay Bacon's Rebellion,   New England Town Meetings, Anne Hutchinson,  Zenger Trial, Mayflower Compact Separatists and City Upon a Hill Dominion of New England, Salutary Neglect, Metacom, Middle Passage, Stono Rebellion House of Burgesses Great Awakening I,, Halfway Covenant,   Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, Albany Plan of Union

 

Period 3, 1754-1800

Battle of Quebec, French and Indian War Mercantilism, Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act ,  Townshend Acts, Boston Massacre, Committees of Correspondence, Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, Common Sense, Continental Congress, Olive Branch Declaration of Independence,   Saratoga, Valley Forge, Yorktown, Republican Motherhood, Articles of Confederation land ordinances,   Shays’ Rebellion,  Philadelphia Convention, Federalists and Anti Federalists, Federalist Papers, Federalist #10 Great Compromise3/5 Compromise,   Commercial Compromise Delegated Powers,  Federalism, Elastic Clause/Implied Powers,Bill of Rights, Whiskey RebellionJay and Pinckney Treaties, Neutrality,   XYZ Affair,  Alien and Sedition Acts, Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

 HamiltonHamiltonHamiltonHamiltonHamiltonHamiltonHamiltonHamilton

 

 

Period 4, 1800-1848

John Marshall and Judicial Review, Louisiana PurchaseLewis and Clark, Embargo Act, The Chesapeake, Hartford Convention American System Monroe DoctrineCorrupt Bargain,  Sectionalism, Spoils System,  Caucus and Nominating ConventionsJacksonian Democracy and Alexis de Tocqueville , Tariff of Abominations, John C. Calhoun,  South Carolina Exposition and ProtestOrdinance of NullificationIndian Removal Act, Trail of Tears Great Awakening II Transcendentalism Unitarians,  Mormons, Seneca Falls Convention,  Temperance, Hudson River SchoolBrook Farm,  AbolitionMissouri Compromise Manifest Destiny, The Alamo

 

Period 5, 1844-1877

Wilmot Proviso, Compromise of 1850Kansas-Nebraska ActBleeding Kansas, Lecompton ConstitutionRepublican Party Dred Scott Case,   Lincoln-Douglas Debates, John Brown,   Election of 1860 Secession, Fort Sumter, Anaconda Plan, Emancipation ProclamationCivil War Draft Homestead ActImpeachment of JohnsonFreedmen’s Bureau,   Black Codes,   Reconstruction Act of 1867CarpetbaggerLiteracy testsKKK, Jim Crow Sharecropping, Home RuleNew South 

 

Period 6, 1865-1898

Nativism Transcontinental Railroad,  Robber Barons and Trusts, Social Darwinism and Edward BellamyGospel of Wealth Knights of Labor, AFL, IWW Pendleton ActRailroad Strike of 1877, Pullman Strike  Haymarket Affair Sherman Anti-Trust Act Granger Movement, Dawes ActWounded Knee 

 

Period 7, 1890-1945

Roosevelt Corollary, Big Stick Diplomacy, Panama Canal,  Teller and Platt Amendments Open Door Policy / John Hay, Populism, Moral Diplomacy, Cross of Gold Speech Conservation, Ballinger-Pinchot, John Muir, Triangle Fire, Settlement Houses, Election of 1912, Clayton Antitrust Act, Underwood Tariff FTC Lusitania, Zimmerman Note,  Red Scare Lost Generation Flapper, Sacco and Vanzetti Mother's pensions, Great Migration,   Harlem Renaissance Teapot Dome Scopes Trial Dust BowlBonus Army Reconstruction Finance Corporation and Smoot-Hawley Tariff, Fireside Chats,  Relief Recovery Reform John Maynard Keynes, Bank Holiday, AAA, FDIC, SEC, CCC, WPA, PWA, TVA, , NIRA and NRA, Social Security, Court Pack, Huey Long,  Lend-Lease Act, Pearl Harbor, D-Day Yalta Conference, Japanese Internment, Island Hopping and Atomic Bomb, Rosie the Riveter, War Bonds and Taxes to beat the Axis!

 

Period 8, 1945-1980; Period 9, 1980-Present (5% of the Exam)

Taft-Hartley, Beatniks, G.I. Bill, Atlantic Charter and United Nations, Truman Doctrine, Containment, Marshall Plan, U2, Sputnik, Rosenbergs, McCarthyism, Berlin Airlift, NATO and Warsaw Pact, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis Star Wars, Gulf of Tonkin, Tet Offensive,  Domino Theory, Military-Industrial ComplexCounterculture, Détente  Nixon Doctrine, Nixon and ping pong diplomacy, Little Rock 9 , Civil Rights Act of 1964, George Wallace, Stonewall Riots, Great Society, Watergate, War Powers Act, Camp David Accords, stagflation, New Conservatism and Christian Right, Reaganomics   Iran Hostage Crisis, Equal Rights Amendment, César Chávez, Silent Spring, Americans with Disabilities Act, NAFTA, War on Terror, Department of Homeland Security

 

 

Click here for APUSH Flashcards!

 

Continuity and Change Examples

Compare and Contrast Examples

Causes and Effects Examples

Turning Points Examples 

 

 

NEW!!! APUSH Review in 18 Minutes! Brace yourself.

 

MAJOR CONCEPTS IN US HISTORY

What do I need to know about Native America and early Spanish Settlements?

What role did religion play in the colonies?

The Pilgrims were separatists, Puritans are non-separatists. The way you remember this is: on Thanksgiving (Pilgrims) you separate your turkey from your stuffing and cranberry sauce. Separatists disassociated themselves from the King of England who was the head of the Church of England.

What were the major events of the American Revolution? Also know the French and Indian War.

What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

What were the major Compromises of the Constitution?

Why did America want Independence? What did the Declaration of Independence actually say?

 

 

How do the branches of government check one another?

What was Washington’s stance on foreign policy?

How are the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions related to secession plots during Jackson's Presidency?

What were the major events of the War of 1812? The Most Important Battle?

What were the major issues under "Jacksonian Democracy." Hint: Tariff, Bank, Nominating Conventions, Spoils System, Trail of Tears, Specie Circular, Ordinance of Nullification, Force Bill. (Perhaps that was more than a hint.)

What should I know about the market revolution of the early-middle nineteenth century?

How did America expand during manifest destiny?

What were the causes of the Civil War? What part did slavery play in it? Know your compromises! (see below)

You may want to know about certain ... important ... Civil War ... Battles, and facts.

How did the United States deal with Native Americans from colonial days to the Gilded Age?

How did women affect social movements?

Westward Expansion -- Know the Turner Thesis, Homestead Act, and the plight of Native Americans during manifest destiny.

What were the strength and weaknesses of Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction? What happened in its aftermath?

What were the two Great Waves of immigration?

What quota laws, and recent laws about immigration should I know?

What happened during the Gilded Age concerning "Robber Barons" and industrialization?

What were some of the cultural innovations of the Roaring 20s? Sports, Music, etc.?

Why did immigrants move towards cities? How did the cities emerge?

How did Populists influence the Progressives?

What were the Progressive Reforms?

How did American foreign policy change c1898? One answer is this, which resulted in this.

Upton Sinclair ... and ... All of the other Progressive Reformers you need to know.

What was the controversy over the Treaty of Versailles Ratification?

Rachel Carlson's Silent Spring comes up all the time. It's a book about environmentalism.

Why was it called the Roaring 20s?

What were the causes of the Great Depression, and the solutions implicated by the New Deal (RRR)?

How did we stay neutral before WWII? How was WWII a Glorious War?

What were the major clashes of the Cold War?

How did different generations of Americans clash during the 60s and 70s?

How did segregation come to an end? What impact did the Warren Court have? Know all about the Civil Rights Leaders of all Eras, and the importance of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

What's the deal with Federalist #10?

Don't get confused: W.E.B. Du Bois wanted absolute equality...Booker T. Washington wanted gradual gains. Remember: W.E.B. = Wants Equality for Blacks...Booker T., for Tuskegee Institute.

 

THE LONG ESSAY (click for in-depth look)

The DBQ Essay (click for in-depth look)

YOU WILL BE ASKED A QUESTION RELEVANT TO THE NEW APUSH HISTORICAL THINKING SKILLS

FORMAT OF NEW APUSH TEST

Continuity and Change Examples

Compare and Contrast Examples

Causes and Effects Examples

Turning Points Examples 

 

In the Long Essay, there's a good chance you will be asked to support, modify, or refute a statement ... such as, "Some historians believe that the New Deal did not help out the economy during the Great Depression. Support, modify, or refute the above statement." See links above.

 

 

LONG ESSAY TIP: BE PREPARED TO WRITE ABOUT SOCIAL HISTORY. That Means: Race, Gender, Religion, and Culture questions ... the essay will look to show continuity and change over time ... look to study:

 

1. POPULISM --> PROGRESSIVISM --> NEW DEAL (TRACE THE LIBERAL REFORM MOVEMENTS) Omaha Platform = STAR 16 (Senators, Tax, Australian Ballot, RR control)

2. Civil War Causes through Reconstruction

3. Changes in Industry from early-late Nineteenth Century

4. Race/Gender/Religion - how rights were denied and achieved.

5. Causes of Revolution (end of Salutary Neglect), and how relations between the colonies and Britain dissolved.

6. Immigration and Nativism/Red Scare/1920s Immigration Restriction

RANDOM PEOPLE THAT COULD APPEAR ON THIS TEST (Video Below Chart)

 

COURT CASES - WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW!

 

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COURT CASE REVIEW SONG AND VIDEO!!!

  

Marbury v. Madison = Judicial Review

McCulloch v. Maryland = Federal Supremacy, and the right to charter a bank. "The Power to Tax is the Power to Destroy!" Here's a list of other important John Marshall decisions.

Worcester v. Georgia = The Supreme Court ruled that Georgia could not pass legislation regarding Cherokee lands.

Dred Scott v Sandford = Roger B. Taney says that slaves are property and can not sue in court. The Missouri Compromise is reversed.

Muller v. Oregon = Limits hours women can work.

Adkins v. Children's Hospital = refutes Muller decision.

Schenck v. US = "Clear and Present Danger" Can't shout "FIRE!!!!" in a crowded theater (limits free speech).

Schecter v. US - Declares the NIRA Unconstitutional

US v. Butler - Declares AAA Unconstitutional

Insular Cases

Slaughterhouse Cases

Korematsu v. US = Japanese Internment is Constitutional as Executive Order 9066 states that in times of War, rights can be limited.

Plessy v. Ferguson = Justifies Jim Crow laws, and "separate but equal."

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka KS........ Ends segregation in schools.

Baker v. Carr, 1962 – The Supreme Court ruled that the federal courts could hear cases and force states to redraw where the districts are.

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke – Race can be considered in the university admissions process, but distinct racial quotas are illegal.   

NY Times v. US, 1971 – Publication of the Pentagon Papers was protected by freedom of the press.

United States v. Nixon, 1974 - President Richard Nixon was not protected by executive privilege, and had to hand over tape-recordings. Nixon remains the only President to resign the office.

Roe v. Wade = Legalized abortion, but not in all cases. Most important to know is that a woman’s right to privacy is protected. NOTE: Though Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) affirmed the major points of the Roe decision, it was ruled that states could also regulate abortions with requirements such as parental consent.

Dennis v. US - Due process limited because of a fear of Communism. Similar to "clear and present danger" mentioned above.

Miranda v. Arizona, Gideon v. Wainwright, Mapp v. Ohio = rights of the accused.

 

 

Ways to Memorize Amendments and Bill of Rights

   

 

NEW DBQ Reminder = For EACH document you use (and you must use all, or all but one), be sure to include at least one of the following forms of analysis ... Put on your Thinking "CAPP":

 C-Context (Historical Context) - connection to the larger historical era, or bigger picture of time and place. 

A- Audience - Who the document was intended for.

P - Point of View - What the belief or bias of the author or artist is.


P - Purpose - The goal of the document's author.

 

In addition, for the DBQ you MUST contextualize (put the essay into context), and use HUGE AMOUNTS of outside information. You have to present and argue your thesis (DON'T COPY THE STATEMENT).

Synthesis is needed to achieve an essay point. The easiest way to earn a synthesis point on the DBQ is to extend or modify the thesis, recognize a contradiction, or connect to another historical era in the US (or use relevant World/European History). See the AP US Historical Thinking Skills for more on the skills you should consider.

 

TIMELINE OF MAJOR DATES!!!

 

COMPROMISES

Constitutional = The Great Compromise (Virginia (bicameral on population) vs. NJ Plan (equal representation), 3/5 Compromise, and Commercial Compromise.

Civil War: Missouri Comp, Comp of 1850, K-N Act (KNOW THESE PROVISIONS WELL)

1820 - Missouri is a slave state, no slavery north of 36'30, Maine is a free state. -- Henry Clay.

1850 - Fugitive Slave Law, No Slave Trade in DC, former Mexican Territory now Utah and New Mexico has Popular Sovereignty, California is Free, Texas gave up western land and received $10 Million to pay off its national debt. -- Authored by Henry Clay

1854 - Kansas Nebraska Act = Popular Sovereignty. This of course led to Bleeding Kansas, then the Lecompton Constitution. -- Authored by Stephen Douglas

 

Political Parties

Federalist --> Whigs --> Republicans (Free Soilers and Know Nothings unite here)

Democrat-Republicans --> National Republicans (era of good feelings) --> Democrats

 

 

 

Women's History Review

CLICK HERE FOR FORMAT OF NEW APUSH TEST

TARIFFS TO KNOW

1. 1828 Tariff of Abominations (and Compromise Tariff)

2. Underwood Tariff of 1913 - Democrats regain office and decrease the tariff rates.

3. Hawley Smoot Tariff of 1930 = Raised tariffs to highest point since the Tariff of Abominations. This was done mostly to protect the agriculture industry.

D ... DEMOCRATS, TARIFFS GO DOWN, HELP Dee POOR, Deep or Solid South.

R ... Republicans, Raise Tariffs, Less Taxes for the Rich, Favor Railroads and Robberbarons. Also comprise the Religious Right.

Remember -- when Democrats are in office, tariffs typically go down. When Republicans are in office, tariffs typically go up. Tariffs eased after WWII.

 

AFL AND KNIGHTS OF LABOR

BAGS (Bread Butter Issues /AFL  / Gompers / Skilled

KUPS (Knights / Unskilled / Powderly / Strike more ... (Unskilled spellers can't spell cups!)

 

HAMILTON VS JEFFERSON MNEMONIC DEVICE ...  SAFE PLANES

Jefferson favors State rights and a Strict Interpretation of the Constitution, Agriculture, France, the Educated Commoner  SAFE

Hamilton = Favors the Propertied or Wealthy, Loose Interpretation of the Constitution, an Army, National Bank, England, and Strong Government PLANES

 

Nervous about recent stuff on the test? Click below!

          Recent US History Flashcards

Recent Presidents:

Johnson

Nixon

Ford

Carter

Reagan

H.W. Bush

Clinton

W. Bush

Obama

Click here for APUSH Flashcards!

 

FORMAT OF NEW APUSH TEST

Continuity and Change Examples

Compare and Contrast Examples

Causes and Effects Examples

Turning Points Examples 

 

Presidential Slogans ...

TR (Rep) = A Square Deal for Americans! Support consumers over trusts.

Woodrow Wilson (Dem) = New Freedom (defeats TR's New Nationalism) and trustbusts with even more tenacity!

Warren G. Harding (Rep) = Return to Normalcy post WWI

FDR (Dem) = The New Deal - Public Works, and Government Economic influence

Truman (Dem) = A Fair Deal - social improvement, and healthcare.

Eisenhower (Rep) = Dynamic Conservatism. The 1950s = A conservative time, economically (Gov supports Big Business), politically (McCarthyism), and socially (Women at home, Leave it to Beaver). Eisenhower also signed the Interstate Highway Act to connect the country together with roads.

JFK (Dem) = The New Frontier, liberal problem solving for poverty, racial prejudice, and international aid.

LBJ (Dem) = The Great Society - Money to the poor, education, and an end to discrimination.

THESE WOMEN ARE POPULAR TOPICS!

Betty Friedan was a feminist who wrote The Feminine Mystique. She supported equal rights for women, and was the first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW).

Phyllis Schlafly was opposed to modern feminism. She was outspoken against the ERA (Equal Rights Amendment).

 

Click here for the AP US History Review Song.

 

The Presidents Song, by The Social Studs

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The Causes of the Civil War Music Video, by the Social Studs

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Checks and Balances Song

 

Just for fun ... CAPITALS OF THE STATES! By the Social Studs

  Social Studs

 

Click here for the APUS History Review Song!

 

 

 

 

 

 

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